More conlangery below the cut, actual proper conlangery this time, and a decent example of why Basma is not a full conlang and just a ‘booklang’. If there’s still interest in their history I’ll get around to that but for now, language! 

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Quite an interesting system, I particularly like the deistic(?) affixes!

Thanks, I don’t really have a term for the affixes they use for their god but “deistic” works as well as any. Although, they specifically refer to the God of the Basmiat and not other gods which are given the same animacy pronouns as humans/other sapient beings. They are the only people in the region who follow a single god/have a “one-god pantheon” so they draw the distinction. 



More of those “booklang”-ish things. The post on Basma pronouns seemed to interest people so I did one on the rest of the rough grammar as I have it. 

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More of those “booklang”-ish things. The post on Basma pronouns seemed to interest people so I did one on the rest of the rough grammar as I have it. 


Basic vowels:

a - /ä/

e - /e/

i - /i/

o - /o/

u - /u/

ah - /æ/

eh - /ɛ/

ih - /ɪ/

oh - /ɤ/

uh - /ʊ/

double vowels held longer


ae - /ɜ/

ai - as in “eye”

oe - /ɒ/

oi - as in “boy

i before a vowel is said like /j/

u before a vowel is said like /w/


b, ç, d, f, g, h, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, v, z

r is usually said as “ɹ" after a vowel but like "ɾ" after a consonant though this varies by region and sometimes the latter is consistant no matter where the ‘r’ falls.

p, t, k are all aspirated by default

all other consinants become aspirated or voiceless if they are doubled (bb - bʰ, vv -f) except ç/h which never changes and m/n which are held

other consonant combinations

zs- ʒ

sz - ʃ

The rest of the consonants are otherwise pronounced as in englsih. 


The roots tend to be consonant clusters of two (-zd-, -pv-) or three (-rpl-, zzs-) or a similar pattern followed or preceded by a vowel+h (-spah-, -rpleh-) or (-hust-, -hogdr-)

Present Tense: 

A verb is in the present tense if the initial vowel is an “a” or “u” or dipthong beginning with either.  There is also an “o” form that doesn’t conjugate.


Taspio - I speak to him

giuhzie led - We create a song

gahogdra tehseh ad hozt - We drive the sheep up the mountain

gopvva - We answer her 

diuazd da - It sets there

Past Perfect Tense:

A verb is in the past tense if the initial vowel is an “i” or “e”. For these “i” is the more common past tense form and generally they correlate “a”>”i” and “u”>”e” but not always.

Tispio - I spoke to him

giehzie led - We created a song

gehogdra tehseh ad hozt - We drove the sheep up the mountain

(betoe) gopvva - We answered her (yesterday)

diiazd da - It set there

Other tenses are usually formed by some adverbial modifier such as-

steh giuhzie led - We are creating a song (now song) 


dien - to be allowed

tsi - to be able

gahb - to like to

pidz - to be obligated/ “must”

zsiv - to be obliged/ “should”

goz - to desire to/ wish to/“want”

kovr - to be possible

tsar - to prefer

gezn - to need

Come at the beginning of the sentence and stand alone: Goz tofrie (wish to I wish to correct it/figuratively: “I’m sorry”)

Tsar takio - I prefer to follow him

— Wasn’t sure what section this should go in but it seems to be important verb-related information so here seems good —

"To have" and "to own"

There is no word for either in Basma. Instead you say you are “with” the thing you “have” or “own”. For example, if you were asked “Do you have a hat”? You could answer “Tar die keze/I am with a hat” which would imply you have a hat, it is currently in your possession, but it isn’t necessarily your hat. While answering “vedr tar die keze/I am always with a hat” would imply you have a hat, which you own, though it may or may not be on your person at that moment. 

Also, the latter doesn’t necessarily imply “ownership over” the way it does in English as the distinction for them is more own of time than anything else. So, “Tar dai vlid/ I am with kids” does not mean “I have children” so much as that you are with children at that moment. To say you have children you would use “vedr tar dai vlid”… unlike with inanimate objects this does not mean you own children.  

Some other useful distinctions when these words are applied to relationships:

Komr mar do - Friend “with”.me - I have a girlfriend ((while “Tarr komr duvar” is “I am friends with her”))

Vedr komr mar do - Always friend “with”.me - I have a wife 


Nouns have no grammatical gender on the noun and no plurals. The plural is inferred from the pronouns on the verb. So “Kob diidnok tala” is literaly “Rock they.fell.them House” there’s no plural form on the nouns but the plural pronouns in the verb tell us there were more than one rock and more than house. 

There is one plural form that is occasionally formed through reduplication and it is roughly the Basma equivalent of saying lots/most/all. Single syllable words are simply repeated but for two or more syllables only the first syllable is repeated. 


Vlidvlid diskr - Most of the children died

Kob diidnok tatala - Rocks fell on all the houses




There are none except an occasional augmentative, “El”

Eleshnu, eardiu - O God, you are great

pred eldivr paka? - Why does this great calamity follow us? (why great.calamaty


Are formed like verbs. There’s not really a way to say “The brown hat” the form is always “the hat is brown”. If you want to specify something by an adjective in contrast to other things you use “ke”.

Tetoe vlid razphie - yesterday a boy read it

Tetoe vlid razphie ke - the boy who read it yesterday

Estu gabzrie keze ke gard- The bear wearing a hat is great

Piçin pahd ag pazl - The pinecone is brown and pretty

esun gakpie ke gariaç - The rabbit following it is mine

Regab diar ziz ed saghr errost - In three months we will go to the stones (Month they.are three then we.go.them stone) 

Comparative forms are formed like so:

Piçin pahd ioez ke - The pinecone is browner 

Piçin pahd gaz ke - The pinecone is brownest


Come after the verb. Comparatives are formed like so:

gazzsa  mir - it shines on us brightly

gazzsa mir ioez  - it shines on us more brightly

gazzsa mir gaz - it shines on us most brightly 


ii, bir, ziz, çir, besz, dir, kiz, kuz, on, adar, iidar, birdar, çirdar, bedar, kidar, kudar, ondar, emr, (emrii, emr bir)…  


The basic word order is roughly Subject, Verb, Direct Object, Indirect Object. 



There’s going to be conlang samples below this cut but nothing really interesting. This is just a rough thing for my own reference that I may or may not update later.

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Ok, these are a sampling of the main languages spoken in the areas in red. Semi for rp purposes semi for personal reference. They all have the same “parent” language. I’ll probably end up changing things but this is basically it for now.


Bēnno-achnīl ed Zōl dendeb bōhdagh a ehgoschent, gub bjāthol bēchnatho pechnath pachnūlde tebjūl. Lēl khedado chnod bhibjāh theabēkhansche aus bjātholdeb pachnūlbjā gesch bōhdagh asch. Igi Bēnno-achnīl bēgh bīhdbjā objē zeatho dzed bjāthol ahdat pechnath pachnūldeb dzihk gedembjā  chna āldah gesch. Dachnde Bēnno-achnīl āl chnochnadeb theadaghthosche. Ikhid Zōl gāld legatho ed bjāthol zdath bēkhano aus pachnūlbjā gesch. Dzichn Bēnno-achnīl theabādethsche chnod Zōl a bōhdagh.


Benho-aqer ed Zoler dendeb bogdaʀ asz egkoszent, kub byatoʀer beqato peqat paqulde tebyur. Eller khedado qod bʀebyager tebeghanosz au byatoʀdeb ke paqulbya bogdaʀ asz. Eke Benho-aqer beʀ begdelbya obye zebato tzed byatoʀer beqato agdat paquldeb tzeg kedemebya qa ke aledag. Daqde Benho-aqer qoqadeb teʀedaʀtosz. Eghed Zoler kaled lekato ed byatoʀer zat beghano au paqulbya ke. TzeqBenho-aqer badeto qod Zoler asz bogdaʀ.


Pento-eki et Schola tentep pota ekosent, kup pjaðo pekað pekaðet pekultep tepjur. Ere retatet kot pipja ðeparese uf pjaðotep pekuja ke pota as. Iki Pento-eki pe piteja opje schepaðo tset pjaðo atat pekaðet pekultep tsik ketemja ka alita ke. Tekte Pento-eki a kokatartep ðetaðose. Irit Schola kalit lekaðo et pjaðo schtað paret uf pekulja ke. Tsik Pento-eki paðeðet kot Schola pota.


Bendoz-aqil ed Zoz den ponda as enkosent, kub biahuoz beqahuen peqahuo paquln tebiun. Erez jetaden qod blibian dlepajeses auf biahuojn paqulbia kes ponda as. Iki Bendoz-aqil be bindelbia obies zepahuen dzed biahuoz andad beqahuen paquln dzink kedemibia qa alidan kes. Taqdem Bendoz-aqil al qoqadan dledajhuoses. Ijid Zoz kalid lekahuen ed biahuoz zdahu pajez auf paqulbia kes. Dziq Bendoz-aqil dlahuehuoses qod Zoz as ponda.


Begno-achriir ed Sorer dendem podagh as ekosent, kub bjatogher betato petad patrurdem tebjur. Errer ghetad trod biibja tepeghases uv bjatoghdem patrurbja kes podagh as. Iik Begno-achriir begh biiderbja objes sepad tsed bjatogher adat petad patrurdem tsiik kedembja ta ariida kes. Taqdem Begno-achriir ar trotadardem tedaghtoses. Iighiid Sorer kariid rekato ed bjatogher sdað peghad uv patrurbja kes. Tsiit Begno-achriir paðetos trod Sorer as podagh.


Begno-akra ed Sore dendeb podagh as ekosent, kub brahuoghe betahuova petahuo patruron tebrur. Erre ghetadva trod babra huepaghes uv brahuoghdeb patrurbra kes podagh as. Ak Begno-akra begh baderbra obres sepahuova tsed brahuoghe adat petahuo patrurdeb tsak kedembra ta arada kes. Taqdem Begno-akra a trotada huedaghhues. Aghad Sore karad rekahuova ed brahuoghe sdah peghan uv patrurdeb kes. Tsat Begno-akra pahehuos trod Sore as podagh.


Vegoy-akra ed Sorey dendev poday as ekosent, kuv vradoy vetad petado patrurdev tevrur. Errey yetad trod vavra depayeses uv vradoydev patrurvra kes poday as. Ak Vegoy-akra vey vadervra ovres sepad sed vradoy adat petado patrurdev sak kedemvra ta arada kes. Taqdem Vegoy-akra a trotadev tedaydos. Ayad Sore rekad karado ed vradoy sdah payen uv patrurdev kes. Sat Vegoy-akra pahedos trod Sore as poday


Pento-axil et Soll ten porrtag a errkosent, kup pjahog pexah texeho paxulte tepjur. Ellel getat xot plipjarr hepages au pjahogte paxulpja kex porrtag as. Iki Pento-axil peg pirrtelpja opje sepah tset pjahog arrtat texeho paxulte tsirrk kexpja xa altarr kex. Taxte Pento-axil al xoxatarte hetletaghos. Igit Soll kalt lekaho et pjahog stað pagen au paxulte kex. Tsit Pento-axil paðeho xot Soll a porrtag.


Ol Bendo-achil ond ela Shole cechen arga dendeb fordag az, chob on Madog im en Fachema demol envelez bechez. Eller jedad nod al Brima vejadev aov ol Madogen chez Fachema fordag az. Iget ol Bendo-achil shefadez com ela Birdema omez ced ol Madog ela Fachen circ checi ardat envelez na chez Alida. Dachdem ol Bendo-achil tredavev ila Nochada. Ijid, ela Shole chalid lechez ond ol Madog shdad vejadez aov chez Fachema. Ci ol Bendo-achil nod ela Shole az fordag fadavev.




As requested, Itarian history…

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As requested, Itarian history…

In their “pre-modern” history what would become “Itaria” was divided into many, many, smaller regions ruled by feudal lords. Though they all spoke the same language (or dialects of) and worshiped from the same pantheon there was no unified “Itarian” identity, most people had a loyalty to their lord’s estate and they were very frequently at war. Occasionally alliances would be formed as the southern region was often subject to raids and brief occupations by seafarers. 

The north experienced their own occasional conflicts with their neighbors until a people came down from Skörd (the teal island at the top left on the large map). They formed a permanant settlement and eventually subsumed the local people. This new culture (made up of Skördans /Skʰøʁd.ənz/ and locals) became Engal (/ɛ which continued to expand it’s territory until they began to push into Itaria.

This started a long history between the states of foreign rule and independance and was the catalyst in much of the changes that shaped modern Itaria including a unifed Itarian identity.

Unlike the largely impermanant raids Itaria faced in the past the Engalan armies wrecked havoc on the regional governments, taking territories under Engalan rule, ending and displacing lines of lordship. 

They also used Itaria as a resource depleting food and money to fuel campaigns elsewhere. The Itarian’s numbers began to suffer as a combined result of the new Engalan invasions and continued raids in th south and a more cohesive identity began to form between them as concern for their continuation as a people grew. The Itarians eventually selected a King to mirror the Engalan government and present a more unified front. It was in this time that single “Itarian” identity emerged taken from a previously minor goddess who had promised a continuation of their people in exchange for worship as their primary god.

Notions of property ownership also changed through Englan conquest. In the past, at the end of one lord’s line a local military struggle would establish a new one or the region would be claimed by a neighboring lord. Under Englan rule any Itarian military activity was seen as dangerous and so the end of a region’s lordship ownship of the property fell to the people who lived on and worked the land who then paid a taxes or tribute to Engal with no intervening lord. 

Another change was brought about by Engal’s attempts to gain a stronger hold of the region by introducing permanent settlements. This was done frequently by forcing Itarians off their land as any Itarian who would willingly sell his land to Engal would be despised by his neighbors. Other means were by forcibly conscripting Itarians into the Engalan army, often in ‘cannon fodder’ positions, so that their land could be claimed by the Engalan government if they failed to return. As well a very high property tax was levied any male property owner. These factors prompted a shift in property ownership from Itarian men to Itarian women as women were barred from service (and thus conscription) in the Engalan army as well as taxation in most cases since a woman who owned property in Engal would likely be a widow or otherwise in an unfortunate situation and it would be considered cruel to tax her.

The latest and longest lasting occupation divided the country culturally and linguistically into a North (the yellower portion on the map) and a South (the greener portion). The South having a more “classically Itarian” culture while the North adopted more Englan modes of dress, hair length, food, social behaviour and even physical appearance. 

There also developed a “North” and “South” accent/regional dialect where previously accents were divided more along the borders of the regions that existed prior to the modern Itarian identity. Those regional accents still exist but now tend to be mostly recognised by people on the same side of the North/South divide (so someone from the South might be able to pick out several Southern accents to someone from the North they’d all just sound “Southern”).

And while your average Northerner would choke you with your own boot if you dared suggest they’re anything but Itarian they still consider themselves somewhat less backwards than Itarians in the South because of their cultural similarities to Engal.

The Northern stereotype of a Southerner is very tall, skinny, long hair, overly friendly, but still prone to unexpected violence, rural, uneducated, and not too keen on respecting personal space. This is also the Englan stereotype of Itarians in general, the Northern reaction to this being somewhere between resentment and “we’re not the ones like that, it’s them down there.” Engal also tends look down on the freedoms of Itarian women (like property ownership, they also don’tsee it as a “freedom” really) and the military-oriented culture of Itarian men (service is obligatory, “just in case”) as well as the tendency to have as many kids as reasonably possible in hopes that some survive to carry on the family name (patrilineal) or keep the property/inheritence (matrilineal), and lack of cultural propensity to academics, etc. without much acknowledgement of their part in that. Most Englans would say it’s “just how Itarians are”. 

In the “current time” both North and South Itaria are a unified free nation recovering from Engalan occupation which ended when uprisings and pressure from Southern Itarian armies was ultimately deemed not worth putting up with over such a poor, backwards, nation with little to offer and “if they want it that bad they can keep it”. Things between the states have been mostly friendly now for some time. Far less tension than any recent time in history. Though the history there has left Itaria struggling economically.

You’ve probably gathered Engal is, to use tumblr parlance, a great big bag of dicks. I largely based them on various Empires throughout history from Rome to Imperial Japan and I can’t really think of any warm and fuzzy Empire so…

Also, the character I rp is from that slightly darker coloured region to the Southeast (called “Helencia”) which has its own regional quirks but probably this thing has gone on long enough.

Other random Itarian facts:

In the South it is fairly popular to nap around noon-ish because damn it gets hot that time of day.

Itarians, male and female, wear their hair long, particularly in the South. Complex braids are popular with the women, men usually wear a simple braid or ponytail if off-duty from the military. In the military they wear it in a top knot of sorts.

There’s a drink from the region called “boca" that’s thought of as a sort of "unrefined coffee" but actually gives a much, much, more concentrated boost of both energy and strength.

Appearance-wise, drawing from earth ethnicities, people from Portugal/Spain/Italy/Greece/Turkey could all be passably Itarian.

Except Itarians are extremely, unusually, tall. My character about 6’5” and that’s not too unusual for someone from the South. They’re shorter in the North.

Itarians have a strong oral tradition and no writing system of their own. Literacy hasn’t really caught on much but it’s more common in the North where they use the Engalan alphabet.

Male Itarian names end in “l”, particularly “el” while female names end in “r”, particularly “ar” (makes it easy to tell “Itar” is a goddess).

Trying to remember if I forgot anything but I think that is everything I can think to say about Itaria. hopfully it was at least fairy clear/sensible. Also, I can go into more detail on Helencia or move on to tales of Basma and why it is a sad, stripe-y country and Engal is still a great big bag of dicks.



Another language from that world I rp a character from. For the exactly one of you that know, the country that was eaten by an Eldritch Horror while a technically different people with a different language it was a semi-mutually intelligable language… so similar.

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Another language from that world I rp a character from. For the exactly one of you that know, the country that was eaten by an Eldritch Horror while a technically different people with a different language it was a semi-mutually intelligable language… so similar.

When our gods saw the Basmiat they sent a wind to wake the young fall trees. 
Xixini’kasp’Noqinoq ios iqashb’ahoxi’apgapi’aq.
[ʒiʒiniʔkʰasp’Nokinok jos ikaʃb’ahoʒiʔapgapiʔak] 

These were the Yuunoq and we are the Basmiat’s sisters.
p’iqanep’Yuunoq ios di’inep’yuuNoqinoqag. 
[p’ikanəp’juunok jos diʔinəp’juunokinokag]

…If it isn’t clear their country shared a border with Basma but they’ve long had a mostly friendly relationship between them.

I should draw a map when I get back home.



Because I am a huge nerd I’ve decided to post sample sentences of the fictional language, of a fictional country, that I occasionally rp a character from with a friend. Wrote it up because we were discussing what accent the characters would have. Prior to this I had a vague idea for the sound of the language but the only certain thing was “a German “r” as is found in ‘Bremen’”… my understanding on IPA is shaky at best so hopefully I chose the right “r”.

Putting it below a cut to spare those of you who understandably have less nerdy or at least better nerdy things to look at on your dash.

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Preserving the cut.


Because I am a huge nerd I’ve decided to post sample sentences of the fictional language, of a fictional country, that I occasionally rp a character from with a friend. Wrote it up because we were discussing what accent the characters would have. Prior to this I had a vague idea for the sound of the language but the only certain thing was “a German “r” as is found in ‘Bremen’”… my understanding on IPA is shaky at best so hopefully I chose the right “r”.

Putting it below a cut to spare those of you who understandably have less nerdy or at least better nerdy things to look at on your dash.

So, here it is,

Dela Ciloa issi ebo al Itar gotta ver ela Gottern ajern bemachez ond verdoz Itariarn. 
[dɛlə tsiloə isi ɛbo al itaʁ goə vɛʁ ɛlə goɛʁn aʝɛʁn bɛmaxɛz ond vɛʁdoz itaʁiəʁn]

This is the story of how the goddess Itar usurped the other gods and we became Itarians. 

Ligoz ela Mersan svisan, fal jaran tao-ona ond fal jaran tao-ona mira. Ber Itar ezen Gotta onsa.  
[ligoz ɛlə mɛʁsan svisan fal ʝaʁən taoʔonə ond fal ʝaʁən taoʔonə miʁə. Bɛʁ itaʁ ɛzɛn goə onsə]

We lay between the seas, for 1,000 years and for 1,000 more. But Itar was not our goddess.

And Basma, the character’s employer’s native language:

Egun pirt davani karak ag era pirno.  
[ɛgun piɾ davani kʰaɾakʰ ag ɛɾa piɾno]

The land was always here just like the sun and the air.

Tenez, zuek nirt davadnek egunak, erostet egunak nisked,  
[Tɛnɛz zuɛk niɾtʰ davadnɛkʰ ɛgunakʰ ɛɾosɛtʰ ɛgunakʰ niskʰɛd]

One day, after they had been in the land for so long, the stones in the land began to think,

ag nived, ag niorsted  
[ag nivɛd ag njoɾsɛd]

and they began to talk, and to move

ag dizka Basmiat.   
[ag dizkʰa bazmjatʰ]

and they became us, the Basmiat.


Hopefully I didn’t mess up the IPa stuff too badly. At least I am certain they are grammatically correct and I think I am at least close in how they are pronounced.




Outline sketch for a “parent language” for languages of the regions coloured in red.

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Outline sketch for a “parent language” for languages of the regions coloured in red.


voiced stops: g d b

voiceless stops: p t k q 

aspirated stops: pʰ tʰ kʰ

ejectives: p’ t’ k’ s’

laterals: l ɬ

fricatives: ð θ ɣ 

sibilants: s ts ʃ

nasals: n

vowels: ɑ ɛ i o u

θ and ʃ are spelled as in English with “th” and “sh” respectively. “L” is pronounced as ɬ if it appears at the end of a word or near the vowels “a” and “u”. “i” leading another vowel creates the semi-vowel “j”, other diphthongs are rare. Everything else I think I’ve marked. 

Bendo-aqil ed S’olel (North Wind and the Sun):

Bendo-aqil ed S’olel den p’oʀdaɣ as eʀk’osent, kub Biathoɣ beqatho pʰeqatho Pʰaquldem tʰebiul. Elle ɣetad qod Bʀibiaʀ thep’aɣeses auf Biathoɣdeb Pʰaqulbia kes p’oʀdaɣ as. Ik’i Bendo-aqil beɣ biʀdelbia obies s’ep’atho tsed Biathoɣ aʀdat pʰeqatho Pʰaqulb tsiʀk kedemi qa Alidaʀ kes. Taqdem Bendo-aqil al Qoqadar tʀedaɣthos. Iɣid S’olel kalid lek’atho ed Biathoɣ s’tʰath p’eɣan auf Pʰaqulb kes. Tsiq Bendo-aqil p’aðethos qod S’olel as p’oʀdaɣ.

Bendo - wind

aqil - north

ed - and

S’olel - sun

den - which

p’oʀdaɣ - stronger

as - was (use with adjectives only)

eʀk’osent - were arguing

kub - when

Biathoɣ - traveler

begatho - came 

pʰeqatho - wrapped 

Pʰaqul - cloak

tʰebiul - warm

Elle- they

ɣetad - agreed

qod - that

Bʀibiaʀ - the first

thep’aɣes aufs - to force to take off

kes - his

Ik’i - then

beɣ - with

obies - all

biʀdel - strength

s’ep’atho - blew

tsed - but

tsiʀk - around

kedemi - himself

aʀdat - tightly/closely

qa - because of

alidar - breath

taqdem - eventually

al - this

qoqadar - attempt

tʀedaɣthos - forced to give up

iɣid - afterward

kalid - warmly/hotly

lek’atho - shone

s’tʰath - immediately

tsiq - so/thus

p’aðethos- forced to admit 


3 persons (first, second, third), 3 numbers (singular, dual, plural), 6 moods, 2 Conjugated “types”, and 6 tenses.

verb root, type 1: l-k’- to shine

verb root, type 2: -ʀk’- to argue

Present Tense (shine, argue): 

1st person sng, dual, pl - lak’e (I shine), lak’a, (we dl) lak’os (we)

2nd person sng, dual, pl - lak’en (you shine), lak’an (you dl) lak’on (y’all)

3rd person sng, dual, pl - lak’es (s/he/it shines), lak’en (dl) lak’os (they)

1st person sng, dual, pl - aʀk’ (I argue), aʀk’o, (we dl) aʀk’os (we)

2nd person sng, dual, pl - aʀk’e (you argue), aʀk’on (you dl) aʀk’en (y’all)

3rd person sng, dual, pl - aʀk’a (s/he/it argues), aʀk’an (dl) aʀk’as (they)

Past Perfect Tense (shone, argued):

1st person sng, dual, pl - lek’a, lek’ae, lek’ao 

2nd person sng, dual, pl - lek’aa, lek’aaðe, lek’an

3rd person sng, dual, pl - lek’atho, lek’ad, lek’oso 

1st person sng, dual, pl - aaʀk’, aaʀk’a, aaʀk’as

2nd person sng, dual, pl - eʀk’, eʀk’aa, eʀk”as

3rd person sng, dual, pl - eʀk’a, eʀk’atho, eʀk’os

Pluperfect Tense (have shone, have argued):

1st person sng, dual, pl - lek’ab, lek’aeb, lek’aob 

2nd person sng, dual, pl - lek’aab, lek’aabe, lek’akab

3rd person sng, dual, pl - lek’abo, lek’aben, lek’ob 

1st person sng, dual, pl - aaʀk’at, aaʀk’aðe, aaʀk’ade

2nd person sng, dual, pl - eʀk’as, eʀk’aas, eʀk’ast

3rd person sng, dual, pl - eʀk’at, eʀk’ath, eʀk’oden

Imperfect (was shining, was arguing):

1st person sng, dual, pl - lek’isi, lek’aesi, lek’atsen 

2nd person sng, dual, pl - lek’bes, lek’ben, lek’besen

3rd person sng, dual, pl - lek’sen, lek’asen, lek’ost 

1st person sng, dual, pl - aaʀk’isi, aaʀk’ase, aaʀk’sen

2nd person sng, dual, pl - eʀk’bes, eʀk’sen, eʀk’senen

3rd person sng, dual, pl - eʀk’as, eʀk’as’, eʀk’osent

Future Tense (will shine, will argue):

1st person sng, dual, pl - lak’ebeʀthe, lak’ebeʀd, lak’ebeʀden

2nd person sng, dual, pl - lak’ebiʀs’, lak’ebiʀstʰ, lak’ebiʀs’etʰ

3rd person sng, dual, pl - lak’ebeʀth, lak’ebeʀðe, lak’ebeʀn

1st person sng, dual, pl - oʀk’beʀde, oʀk’beʀd, ork’beʀden

2nd person sng, dual, pl - oʀk’biʀstʰ, oʀk’biʀstʰ, oʀk’beʀdetʰ

3rd person sng, dual, pl - oʀk’biʀd, oʀk’beʀde, oʀk’beʀden

Future Perfect (will have shone, will have argued):

1st person sng, dual, pl - lak’ebeʀthek’ab, lak’ebeʀdab, lak’ebeʀdenab

2nd person sng, dual, pl - lak’ebiʀs’ast, lak’ebiʀstʰat, lak’ebiʀs’etʰat

3rd person sng, dual, pl - lak’ebeʀthabes, lak’ebeʀðaben, lak’ebeʀnas

1st person sng, dual, pl - oʀk’beʀdekab, oʀk’beʀden, ork’beʀdaben

2nd person sng, dual, pl - oʀk’biʀstʰast, oʀk’biʀstʰab, oʀk’beʀdetʰaeb

3rd person sng, dual, pl - oʀk’biʀdaat, oʀk’beʀdet, oʀk’beʀdenaben


-dar- to be allowed

-k’an- to be able

-bioɣ- to like to

-biuts- to be obligated/ “must”

-tsol- to be obliged/ “should”

-p’al- to desire to/ “want”

Always come after the root. Infix in the Pluperfect Tense (lek’tsolab - I should have shone). 

Voices - Active and Passive:

Verbs are in the Active Voice by default. The Passive is formed by following the verb with -st’- which is conjugated according the Tense of the main verb.


Idar Biathoɣdeb lak’e - I shine on the traveler

Idar Biathoɣdeb lak’e ast’ - The traveler is shined on (by me)


Have 3 genders (femm, masc, neuter), 3 numbers (sng, dual, pl), and 4 cases (nom. acc. dat. gen.).


Masc. - Biɣel aʀk’a (sng), Biɣerl aʀk’an (dl), Biɣeler aʀk’as (pl)

Femm. - Biulaʀ aʀk’a (sng), Biulaʀs aʀk’an (dl), Biulaʀe aʀk’as (pl)

Neuter - Qabo aʀk’a (sng), Qabore aʀk’an (dl), Qabor aʀk’as (pl)


Masc. - dagt’es Biɣelb (s), dagt’en Biɣerlen (dl), dagt’os Biɣelern (pl)

Femm. - dagt’es Biulaʀe (s), dagt’en Biulaʀsen (dl), dagt’os Biulaʀen (pl)

Neuter - dagt’es Qabon (s), dagt’en Qaboren (dl), dagt’os Qaborn (pl)


Masc. - aʀk’a Biɣelbia (s), aʀk’an Biɣerlbied (dl), aʀk’as Biɣelerbien (pl)

Femm. - aʀk’a Biulaʀbie (s), aʀk’an Biulaʀs’ed (dl), aʀk’as Biulaʀeb (pl)

 Neuter - aʀk’a Qabodeb (s), aʀk’an Qaboɣen (dl), aʀk’as Qaboden (pl)


Masc. - Biulaʀ Biɣels (s), Biulaʀs Biɣerles(dl), Biulaʀe Biɣelers(pl)

Femm. - Biɣel Biulaʀs (s), Biɣel Biulaʀses (dl), Biɣel Biulaʀes (pl)

 Neuter - Biudaʀ Qabos (s), Biudaʀ Qaboɣes (dl), Biudaʀ Qabores (pl)


Not typically used. All singular pronouns are either masculine or feminine and are declined accordingly. First person plurals are declined as masculine. Second person plurals are declined as neuter plurals. Third person plurals are declined as masculine. 

1st person sng, dual, pl - Idel/Idaʀ, Ideʀl, Ideleʀ 

2nd person sng, dual, pl - t’ol/t’aʀ, ðo, tho

3rd person sng - ke, s’e, eth (masc/femm/neuter)

3rd person dual, pl - theʀ, elle


There are no definite or indefinite articles only-

Ela, Al, Ol - This (masc, femm, neuter)

Il, Ilaʀ, Ilo - That (masc, femm, neuter)


Always follow the noun they modify and only have to match the noun in number. An unmarked adjective is considered singular, the dual ending is -ʀe while the plural is -ʀ.

Qabo p’oʀda aʀk’a - The strong boy argues.

Biɣerl p’oʀdaʀe aʀk’an - The two strong men argue.

Biulaʀe p’oʀdaʀ aʀk’as - The strong women argue.

A special verb is used for adjectives that in English need the verb “is”.

Ol Qabo p’oʀda et’ - This boy is strong.

Degrees of comparison as follows:

Ol Qabo p’oʀda et’ - This boy is strong.

Biɣel p’oʀdaɣ et’ tsan Qabodeb - The man is stronger than the boy.

Il Biɣel p’oʀdek’ et’ tsan Obiesdeb - That man is strongest (lit. stronger than all).


Come before the verb. They are not declined/conjugated but do have comparative forms. 

glares lak’es - it shines brightly

Ol glareser lak’es - This shines more brightly

Ilo glareseɣ lak’es - That shines most hotly 


On, tho, k’e, ɣer, s’ab, ets, s’eb, ath, qaoq, tsen, ek’e, elbia, onelbia, tholbia, k’elbia, ɣerelbia, s’abelbia, etselbia, s’elbia, athelbia, qaoqelbia, tsenelbia, ek’elbia, tsanig…


The typical non-poetic word order was Subject, Direct Object, Indirect Object, Verb. In a subordinating clause the order would change somewhat to Subject, Verb, Direct Object, Indirect Object. 



More Basma conlangery below the cut. 

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Preserving the cut.


More Basma conlangery below the cut. 

Here’s the compilation of Basma “tourist phrases”.

Thank you - Hokoç/hokiaç di/dei/duz/dus/doi (lit. My thanks to you)

You’re Welcome - Tadok/kadok

Please - Niedia

Yes - Dia

No - Nie

I’m sorry/excuse me - De aklo/aklia

I’m sorry/I apologise - (Goz) tofrie/kofrie

I don’t understand - Himr/kimr nie

I don’t speak Basma - Haspie/kaspie Basma nie

Do you speak Engalan? - Gasp/lasp/miasp/biasp/basp Engal?  

What is your name? - Zses garie/larie nem di/dei?

How are you? - gar/lar/miar/biar/bar koz?

How much is that? - Stozer par/diar/gar/nar/erar/emar?

Can you help me? - Zes gamo/gamia/lamo/lamia/miamo/miama/biamo/biama/bamo/bamia? 

I swear the “simple” phrasebook version of the language is a pretty clear representation of why no one goes to Basma. Also, it is an uninhabitable wasteland and none of the Basmiat live there anymore. In fact, most of them are dead. 

Anyhow, moving on to the alphabet: 

And putting it together using a sample sentence from the possessives lesson:

Traditionally written vertically after contact with Engalan script a couple of horizontal versions began to develop. They remained rarer than the vertical script, though.

And I suppose on a final note about the Basma for all their pronoun fuss about gender they make absolutely no distinction between “male names” and “female names”. Zezir and Iula could be two men, two women, or a man and a woman. Ofc, in a sentence like “Zezir mispio Iula” it becomes obvious “Zezir” is a woman and “Iula” a man… but the names alone tell you nothing.